Section 1

Brandon “Wayne” Wolfe

It’s known by many names, The Super Collider, Euronimo, The Big Banger, I could go on for days, but its mainly known as LHC, The Large Hadron Collider. What is the purpose of this device? Is it as scary as it sounds? Well the short answer for both of those questions is ‘everything, and YES’.  It is the worlds Largest and highest-energy particle accelerator, and by far one of the most important pieces of scientific equipment ever designed. Its designed to put some steam behind some of the most extravagant theories, predictions, and hypothesizes in the scientific world. How important can it be? Well would you call something that potentially has been creating a new type of matter important? I would hope so since this device is giving us new means of discovery in science. With this device and the collaboration of over ten thousand scientists, we are finally able to do things that scientists only one hundred years ago would consider impossible. In as few as ten years we may know what particles behind gravity exists, and I don’t know what most people think, artificial gravity devices sound pretty darn cool. (Trafton, 2011) The way this device works sounds very science fiction itself, the device itself is contained inside a seventeen-mile tunnel, and operates at 7 teV ( 6*1018 electron volts, i.e., 6*106 TeV.) it collides particles together, smashing them at near the speed of light. As a result, it gives us a brief window into creation and gives us an idea of what particle creation was like during The Big Bang.  The importance of what is done by the scientists who run this device is so great. As of yet we have not had many discoveries that are truly groundbreaking from the LHC except for one, being considered possibly the most important discovery of our century, scientists may have actually discovered the Higgs Boson a.k.a. The God Particle. The Higgs Boson, being the main principle of the theory that puts weight behind the theory of how particles obtain mass, pun intended. With the potential discovery of this theoretical particle, it finally paints the picture of an energy field that exists everywhere in the universe interacting and attracting the Higgs Boson. (Thompson, 2012) Being able to understand the sludge that is dark matter, veritable gravy that slows down anything that interacts with the fore mentioned field.  Being able to decipher something like this could lead to further understanding about how gravity works, and could even help pave the way to being able to travel near the speed of light. Being a Science Fiction nerd myself, I cant help but get excited thinking about what secrets The LHC have to offer, every time the machine fires up and collides particles, I cant help but wonder if the universe is going to collapse in on itself, or open up and show us something that no one could ever conceive possible. If only one hundred years ago scientists would consider many discoveries this century impossible, imagine what could happen in the next one hundred years References Trafton, A. (2011, Nov 27). Unexpected data from the large hadron collider   suggest the collisions may be producing a new type of matter read more at: http://phys.org/news/2012-11-unexpected-large-hadron-collider-collisions.html Thompson, N. (2012, July 16). What is the higgs boson and why is it important?. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2011/12/13/world/europe/higgs-boson-q-and-a

Section 2

Ian “Ian Basnight” Basnight

In 1916 Albert Einstein predicted the first black hole in his general theory of relativity. Then in 1967 John Wheeler an American astronomer coined the term black hole. In 1971 the first black hole was found, and was named Cygnus X-1. They discovered eight new X-ray sources detected by rockets carrying Geiger counters. Black holes are just former stars created when they began to collapse in upon themselves. It is the last stage in a stars lifecycle, and normally they become white dwarfs or neutron stars. The gravitational pull of a black hole is so great that light is not able to escape. The final stage before the black hole is the giant star. During this time of a stars life they often detonate or explode into what is called a supernova. This massive explosion causes star to scatter, but leaves behind a cold remnant with no fusion. In the early life of a star nuclear fusion balance the inward pull, outward pressure and the energy that is created by the stars mass. Without force to oppose gravity the black hole shrinks zero volume, and there will be infinitely dense. Planets, light and other matter have to pass very close to get trap in the black holes gravitational pull, and scientists say when you get to that point called the “event horizon” it is impossible to get out of the black holes grasp. You will have to be able to moving faster than the speed of light to escape. Black holes are powerful but small, but are believed to be the center of some galaxies. Black holes are two million miles in radius, four times the size of our sun, and they are distant, dark, and cannot be directly observed. Black holes feed off nearby stars trying to grow and expand until the stars that surround the black hole are completely gone. The larger black holes are normally towards the center of some galaxies because there is so much matter for them to feed off of. They don’t have a limit of how much mater they can consume. They just simply become a lot more denser and there mass increase. These massive holes can or may have the mass of ten to one hundred billion suns. Microquasar is another type of black hole in the binary system with other stars. Due to this type of black hole the matter from other stars circle the black hole creating a disk. Accretion is a process when material from other star heats up as they fall into the hole. And during that process X ray is created, and a telescope that orbits the earth can detect this process in action. If you were to get caught in the gravitational pull of a black hole people would think it would suck you in, but it’s far from a vacuum. The gravity of the black hole would stretch you out and you would eventually fall in, but if a star were to get caught or just even passes to close it would get torn apart.   http://www.space.com/15421-black-holes-facts-formation-discovery-sdcmp.html http://space.about.com/od/blackholes/a/Information-About-Black-Holes.htm http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/space/universe/black-holes-article/

Section 3

Jeff Fuchs

Superhydrophobic Carbon Nanotube Forests/Arrays   Today I’m going to speak about my thoughts on superhydrophobic carbon nanotube forests/arrays and how in a very roundabout way it could come into play with computer animation in the future. When I started doing research on nano technology it was because I have had some history in working with it in the coatings industry. The company I work for has applied a solvent-based, two-component, zinc-rich epoxy nanocoating to aid in research and development, now I’m learning how to virtually coat objects at Full Sail University (http://www.fullsail.edu/). So how on earth could one be tied to the other? With extraordinary properties single-walled (SWNT’s) and multi-walled (MWNT’s) carbon nanotubes are a continued subject of research and development since their discovery in 1991 by Sumio Iijima. With the ability to grow nanotubes directly on substrates and individually functionalize them, synergistic effects can be created. Enter the world of a superhydrophobic surface formed from vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with a non-wetting polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coating; a forest/array of carbon nanotubes. The forests/arrays can be understood by thinking of them like you would a lotus leaf. The lotus effect (self-cleaning effect) to put it quite simply repels water droplets that come in contact with it; the repelled water removes dust and other contaminants in the process. The lotus actually has a very rough surface which in turn allows air to be trapped underneath water droplets, they are basically resting on a layer of air. Now the real physics of this is there is a lot more surface area than there is rough surface area, which in turn means it would require more energy to create a liquid-solid interface. The surface area energy is by nature low making a liquid-solid interface virtually impossible, hence water will naturally repel.

Tesla Nanocoatings Inc. (http://www.teslanano.com/) is a company passionate about the idea that we can conquer corrosion with nanocoatings. Todd Hawkins (Managing Director and Owner of Tesla Nanocoatings Inc.) is currently working with the superhydrophobic carbon nanotube forests/arrays technology in trying to create anti-fouling and drag reducing coatings for ships. Not being a scientist or physicist myself I see this helping two-fold, if I’m correct in my theory. First you are making ships travel more efficiently through water, that alone is a huge savings in both expense and the environment. Second the more water that is repelled in theory is less water that can cause corrosion to the steel substrate. I’m still not tied to computer animation, or am I? I saw a video from Industrial Light and Magic (http://www.ilm.com/) a while ago in regards to the water in the movie Battleship (http://www.battleshipmovie.com/).

In computer animation physics is used quite frequently. As I mentioned when I started this would be very roundabout, but picture the superhydrophobic carbon nanotube forests/arrays technology really progressing not only to ship surfaces but to countless other substrates. Water along with other particles would react differently to various substrates; the visuals we see as real today could look less real or even fake tomorrow. That is an extreme look at the reality of where this technology can lead and how it relates to computer animation. Yet you only have to go back a decade in movies and games to see the progress of today and then imagine the future; science is truly awesome.   References N.A. (2012, May 29). Nanotubes and Buckyballs. Nanotechnology Now. Retrieved February 20, 2013, from http://www.nanotech-now.com/nanotube-buckyball-sites.htm Lau, K., Bico, J., Teo, K., Chhowalla, M., Milne, W., McKinley, G., Gleason, K. (2003). Superhydrophobic Carbon Nanotube Forests. MIT, Gareth McKinley’s Non-Newtonian Fluid Dynamics Research Group. Retrieved February 20, 2013, from http://web.mit.edu/nnf/publications/GHM72.pdf N.A. (2012, October 2). Nanotube Coating Gets $100K R&D Boost. PaintSquare. Retrieved February 20, 2013, fromhttp://www.paintsquare.com/news/?fuseaction=view&id=8492   Section 4 Vincent Jackson Jr Magnet – a body that can attract certain substances, such as iron or steel, as a result of a magnetic field; a piece of ferromagnetic substance. (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/magnet) History of magnets according to Conceptual Physical Science, 4thedition: The term magnetism comes from Magnesia, the name of an ancient city in Asia Minor, where the Greeks found certain very unusual stones more than 2000 years ago. These stones, called lodestones, possess the unusual property of attracting pieces of iron. Such magnets were first fashioned into compasses and used for navigation by the Chinese in the 12th century AD. All magnets have a magnetic force (it is the attraction of unlike magnetic poles for each other and the repulsion between like magnetic poles) and the strength of the magnetic force is dependent on the distance between the magnets. Likewise all magnetics also have a north and south poles depending on the shape of the magnet the location of the north and south poles in a regular bar magnet are situated at the two ends (breaking a magnet in half would result in two magnets and so forth.). In a magnet like poles repel while opposite poles attract. The north magnetic pole can’t exist without the south magnetic pole. The magnetic poles are like night and day they can’t exist without the other. Surrounding each magnet is an area of energy this area is called the magnetic field, the direction of the field is outward from the north pole to the south pole. Electrons in constant motion create the magnet, the motion of electric charge produces a magnetic field. The two types of electron motion that create magnetism are Electron Spin and Electron Revolution.  Electron Spin is an intrinsic property of electrons, the angular momentum of its magnetic field. All spinning electrons are tiny magnets. Electron’s spinning in the same direction generates a stronger magnet, while electrons spinning in the opposite direction cancels out the magnetic field.  (http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/spin.html) Majority of iron objects are magnetized to a certain degree, using a compass one can easily identify their poles, but not every piece of iron is a magnet. Conceptual Physical Science, 4th Edition States: “The magnetic field of an individual iron atom is so strong that interactions among adjacent atoms cause large clusters of them to line up with one another. These clusters of aligned atoms are called magnetic domains.” In a common iron screw the domains are random, but when you bring a magnet nearby, the domains are induced into alignment. The domains align themselves (become polarized) when a magnet is present. After removing the screw from the magnet some or all the domains return to a random position. Magnet’s can be created by placing iron, or similar magnetic material in a strong magnetic field. Magnet’s can also be created by stroking a magnet against magnetic material, stroking the material with a magnet aligns the domains. For example: taking a plastic dish (representing the magnetic material/iron) preferably square and drop some needles (representing the domains of the magnet) in the dish. Each individual needle represents a domain (each end of the needle represents a pole: top is south and the pointer is north) right now they are all randomly scattered within the dish. Now take a magnet and move it around the dish and watch how the needles respond. By stroking the magnet (I assume back and forth) this aligns the domains turning the dish/magnetic material into a magnet. With the domains completely aligned all of the needles should be pointing in the same direction (hypothetically speaking) where the top is pointing to the south pole and the pointer are all pointing to the north. The magnet is used in everyday life we use them to leave notes on the refrigerator and heating food in the microwaves. Magnets are used to power trains, houses, vehicles, Technology that we use everyday, and in pseudoscience as healing mechanisms. Harnessed to make our everyday living easier, we as people have accomplished a lot throughout the years thanks to the magnet. I wonder what other secrets the magnet carries and how we will use them to evolve as a population in the near future. References: Conceptual Physical Science, 4th Edition, Chapter 9 magnetism and electromagnet induction, by Paul G. Hewitt, John A. Suchocki, and Leslie A. Hewitt. Published by Addison – Wesley. Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Magnet (n.d.) Retrieved February 24, 2013 from: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/magnet What is the electron spin?, (n.d.) Retrieved February 24, 2013 from: http://www.electronspin.org

Electron Spin (n.d.) Retrieved February 24, 2013 from: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/spin.html

Sheree Gibson Nanotechnology Breakthroughs in Medicine Cancer has touched all our lives in someway or another; if it’s a loved one we have lost or a dear friend that could never be forgotten this insidious mutant has shown itself more often than not.  It is a biological disease that duplicates cell replication that is unique to the core of life.  Countless hours of research and billions of dollars in technology advances, treatments and hopefully a cure is in in the forecast. To date, chemistry has been one of the most effective approaches to combating cancer known as chemotherapy. It is a treatment of cytotoxic chemicals that kills cancer cells but it also kills healthy tissue as well.  What if we could deliver the drugs directly to the infected cancer cells with minimal to no damage to healthy tissue? It would be a scientific breakthrough! Well, it could very well be on its way and it’s a new generation of nanotech drugs. One of the reasons cancer has been so hard to treat effectively is because of the biological makeup of tumors that feed on oxygen and glucose from surrounding tissue which in turn promotes rapid cell replication and growth. Angiogenesis is the growth of new blood vessels, which is one of the main distinguishers of cancers. These blood vessels supply the tumors with the needed oxygen and nutrients to grow, because they are irregular and leaky and their walls are much larger than healthy blood vessels. Therefore, making it harder for chemotherapy drugs to penetrate into the tumor because by the time the drug has reached its destination the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), which is part of the body’s defense system against bacteria, viruses and protozoa. Our natural defense system begins to strip away at the drug and the payload of the drug is not as high as it was when it initially entered the body. So, how do we get an effective payload of chemotherapy drugs into the tumor? Nanotech drugs have been researched and leading the fight on cancer by approaching it from a physics standpoint. The problem is mass transport and fluid mechanics. The emerging field of transport oncophysics deals with the mass transport properties and time dynamics of the physical barrier to tumor drug delivery. At Harvard Medical School Rakesh Jain has done some ground work and suggests that those barriers are limited in the efficacy of some Nano medicines, because Nano medicines may get to the tumor peripheries via the EPR effect but never make it to the tumors core. Failing to provide significant drug delivery to the tumors core may lead to drug resistance. Nanoparticles can be designed to release their drug payload in direct response to an external stimulus like light, ultrasound, heat or magnetic field.  These elements in conjunction with the nanomaterial provide a more targeted approach to cells.  It provides a direct hit to the core or heart of the tumor, which will halt the growth of the abnormal cells. Two nanotech reformulations of chemotherapeutics, Abraxane, and Doxil, have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and are benefiting cancer patients. Many more anticancer Nano medicines are in clinical development, some based on very different principles than chemotherapy. Now Dennis Discher of the University of Pennsylvania along with his colleagues believe they have found a solution to delivering the drugs payload to the tumors core by attaching “safe” peptides to the drug delivery molecules. By attaching this 21 amino acid peptide base on the structure of CD47, a membrane protein the macrophages recognizes as safe. This allows transition throughout the bloodstream of the chemo drugs because four times as many Nano beads were able to get past the macrophage defense to reach the tumor. Nano medicines are proving to be very effective but not without varying side effects that can be fatally harmful due to the properties that make up nanomaterial. The chronic toxicity of many nanomaterial’s is still largely missing from the scientific equation. How do they adversely affect the human body over time? How safe are these methods really? These among other questions are still awaiting data.  Now, how do you feel about the use of nanomaterial to combat cancer?

Reference Cited

http://www.physicstoday.org/resource/1/phtoad/v65/i8/p38_s1?bypassSSO=1 http://blogs.physicstoday.org/newspicks/2013/02/addition-of-peptides-hides-nanomolecules-from-immune-system/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+physicstoday%2Fpt2+%28Physics+Today+News+Picks%2

Isaac “MkICE” Kumeh

A pioneer in physics Today, I talk about a great legend named Dr. Robert C Richardson. On Tuesday Dr. Robert C Richardson, a physics professor at Cornell University died at the aged 75 in Ithaca N.Y. The cause of his death was because of a heart attack he had a couple of weeks before Tuesday; he still had complications after the heart attack. Dr. Richardson won the shared Nobel Prize of 1996 in physics for “coaxing a rare form of helium into a bizarre liquid state that had never been seen before” with David M. Lee, another physics professor, and Douglas D. Osheroff, stated by Kenneth Chang of the NY Times. The experiment that these three physicists created was also one of the first uses of nuclear magnetic resonance to generate images out of radio waves emitted by the atoms. Later on in his years, Dr. Richardson became a member of the National Science Board, the policy-making body of the National Science Foundation.  Robert Coleman Richardson was born on June 26, 1937, in Washington, the first child of Robert F. and Lois Price Richardson. Dr. Richardson attended Washington-Lee high school in Arlington. From what Dr. Richardson wrote, it seems as if Washington-Lee high school was too easy for him. I will quote Dr. Richardson’s precise words: “There was nothing exceptional about the math and science training at Washington-Lee.” Dr. Richardson went on to earn his bachelor’s degree in physics at Virginia Polytechnic Institute. Dr. Richardson admitted that he was not an especially diligent student but nevertheless obtained a reasonable education in physics. He graduated with a B average and fourth in a group of about nine physics majors. At the time, Dr. Richardson had other plans to go to business school with the aim of becoming a corporate executive.  Dr. Richardson served in the army for half a year instead of the usual two-year enlistment. He said that the brief time he spent there was a “great piece of good fortune” when “the army went short of money.” When he left the army, he was a bit soured on what he learned from the army. Everything he learned at the army almost caused him to forget what he knew about physics. Dr. Richardson decided to return to physics and graduate school, this time at the university of Duke. There at the university of Duke, he began to work on helium-3, which was then still a rare substance, a byproduct of the atomic age. Dr. Richardson was a very hardworking man. He worked for what he wanted to become, served his country, family, and himself. He is indeed a physicist legend. Everything he worked for was a great success. His dedication and determination drew people closer to him. He was very persistent and to know him was to like him. In 1966, Dr. Richardson moved to Cornell as a postdoctoral researcher and was promoted to assistant professor two years later. Dr. Richardson served the people and the places he lived and been. He served as Cornell’s first vice provost for research from 1998 to 2003 and was a member of the board at the university of Duke from 1997 to 2007. As you can see, Dr. Richardson was a well-respected man, father, and physicist. Though he is gone, his work will forever be remembered, as well as him. Reference: Kenneth Chang, “Robert C. Richardson, Laureate in Physics, Dies at 75” NY Times, February 22, 2013 http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/22/science/robert-c-richardson-nobel-winning-physicist-dies-at-75.html?smid=pl-share Section 5

James “jimmy” Newkirk

Hello fellow readers, my topic for this post today is going to be about the recent possible discovery of the Higgs Boson particle aka the “God Particle”. Scientists working at the Large Hardon Collider in Geneva discovered this particle on July 4, 2012.  What is the Higgs Boson particle you ask? Well it is possibly the particle that is responsible for all the mass in the universe. Scientists believe that this particle was what caused the Big Bang to happen. When the scientists looked at the newly discovered particle it has a mass of about 126 billion electron volts so about 126 times the mass of a proton. According to one of the articles that I found scientists believe that if this particle is the Higgs Boson, then it has the mass to cause our universe to be unstable and it could cause the end of our universe billions of years from now. How does the Higgs Boson work? To explain that we have to delve into one of the most prominent theories in particle physics the standard model. The standard model was created in the early 1970’s. What is the standard model? It is a theory that breaks our universe down to its essential building blocks. Physicists figured out that our universe is compromised of 12 different matter particles and 4 forces. In the 12 particles you will find 6 quarks and 6 leptons; quarks make up protons and neutrons and Leptons have electrons and the electron neutrino which is its neutrally charged counterpart. The standard model also includes the 4 forces: gravity, electromagnetic, strong, and weak. So now that we know what the standard theory is we can now explain the mechanics behind the Higgs Boson. Scientists believe that each of the 4 elements in the standard model has a version of their own Higgs Boson a good example of this is given in one of my sources, “Electromagnetic fields, for instance, depend on the photon to transit electromagnetic force to matter. Physicists think the Higgs boson might have a similar function — but transferring mass itself.” – Jonathan Atteberry.  From this quote we can determine that the photon particle mediates the electromagnetic force inside of the electromagnetic field and turns it into matter, the Higgs Boson does the same thing inside of a Higgs Field but it mediates all the particles that pass through the Higgs Field and acquire mass. Where can we find Higgs Bosons? They travel in areas called Higgs Fields in the universe. What Happens in a Higgs Field? When the Higgs Bosons travel some particles get bogged down with mass and some do not, if the particle passes through the Higgs Field unscathed then it will travel around the universe at the speed of light. You are probably asking yourself, what does this mean for mankind? Well what this means for us if we can figure out how mass its self is created then we can solve many “unsolvable calculations” that we have ran into when we were trying to figure out the particles properties. I did mention that scientists said that this particle would spell out the eventual death of our universe, but luckily our future decedents will not even see this coming cause it will happen at the speed of light. If this newly discovered particle was just a few percent different then it wouldn’t spell out doom for our universe. wolchover, N. (2012, July 05). What is the higgs boson (‘god particle’ explained) . Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/21400-what-is-the-higgs-boson-god-particle-explained.html Moskowitz, C. (2012, July 04). New particle at world’s largest atom smasher is likely higgs boson. Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/21380-higgs-boson-particle-lhc-findings.html Atteberry, J. (n.d.). What exactly is the higgs boson. Retrieved from http://science.howstuffworks.com/higgs-boson.htm Moskowitz, C. (2013, February 19). Higgs boson particle may spell doom for the universe. Retrieved from http://news.yahoo.com/higgs-boson-particle-may-spell-doom-universe-152236961.html Section 6

Danny Ravelo

An in-depth look into Time Time travel is a fascinating subject clouded in mystery, hypothesis, and deeply rooted within science fiction writing. Despite the shadowy nature of the subject, relative physicists and quantum physicists have several theories on the subject; some which are conflicting. Time travel is, of course not generated by a steampunk styled machine as suggested by H.G. Wells, nor is it built out of a 1982 DeLorean. Time travel as theorized by physicist is, in a way, more grandiose and elegant. It is on a much larger scale as it involves forces in the universe that currently cannot be harnessed. Time travel studies rely heavily on the work of the famous Albert Einstein. Einstein’s work provided the path for the best solution to theories about the universe as proposed by mathematicians and physicist for decades. The most important contribution that Einstein made for the idea of time travel was suggesting and supporting that time is not a constant. Time is affected by energies and forces of the universe, and can be measured with precise clocks. The key to the theory is measuring the ticking of clocks in relation to another clock in a different location, being affected by different forces; hence “Relativity.” The effects of time flowing differently have already been tested with very precise clocks, such as the atomic clocks at the National Institute of Technology in Colorado. Here, researcher Chen-Wen Chou concluded that clocks tick faster the further they are from Earth, even in a short distance such as a second story to a house. As a matter of fact, time flows differently on different parts at different heights of our body. While standing, our forehead ages faster than our feet. This is, of course not something that will be noticed within a lifetime. Another effect of time is that it flows slower in an object in motion in relation to a stationary object. This was also tested and confirmed by Chen-Wen Chou’s team. What does this mean for time travel? It means that any object in motion will be less affected by time in relation to parts of the universe that are moving slower. The idea is that we could develop a spaceship that could travel even a fraction of the speed of light we can use it to travel forward in time. This ship could be launched on a yearlong trip at this rapid speed. This ship would return to Earth tens of thousands of years in the future, despite it only been traveling for one year, relatively speaking. There are other methods of hypothetical time travel involving Einstein-Rosen bridges, more famously known as “wormholes.” These essentially are two points in space and time bent to touch each other. They are shortcuts for theoretical faster-than-light travel. Relativity theories have some difficulty explaining wormholes as they are only one of several proposed solutions to Relativity, but they have already been tested with the astronomical study of Black Holes, where Einstein’s theory still holds. A problem with wormhole travel arose in 1962 when John Wheeler discovered that a wormhole, if it opened would collapse instantly before any light, let alone some form of spacecraft, could pass through. The idea is that these wormholes collapse instantly because there is no force holding the “walls” open. Due to the nature of these singularities, the force must be negative or anti-gravity. These types of wormholes are known as Lorentzian wormholes. At this point it is looking very bad for this theoretical approach to time travel, but there are some considerations that could work. First we must remember that space is a vacuum. This allows for some interesting qualities to be considered. The biggest consideration is definitely Casimir Energy. Casimir Energy is a special force that affects the attraction between objects in a vacuum. Casimir Energy has been measured, and it is less than weightless; it actually can have negative weight. Casimir Energy proves that vacuums do not always have a density of zero and are not always empty. This anti-gravitational force could hold a Lorentzial wormhole open for long enough as to be used for travel. Now, utilizing gravity to move the openings of the wormhole while a transport travels near the speed of light through it could cause time to flow at different intervals at each end. Theoretically, this means that travel to an earlier time, relative to the time departed, is possible. These ideas and theories are not something that can be put into practice within a short amount time. While theoretically possible, functional time travel is very far away. The most important aspect is that time travel is definitely not just a work of fiction, but a theoretical possibility. Even traveling to the past and affecting the course of history could be possible and you would see your changes unfold in a parallel universe. So, while we cannot use the work of Einstein and other physicists to travel today to another time and space, we can at least use Relativity to prove that the bottom of our feet are the youngest part of our body. Works Referenced George, S. J. (n.d.). The Einstein-Rosen Bridge. Krioma.net | Thoughts of Samuel George. Retrieved February 24, 2013, from http://www.krioma.net/articles/Bridge%20Theory/Einstein%20Rosen%20Bridge.htm Gibbs, P., & Koks, D. (1997). The Casimir Effect. University of California Riverside – Department of Mathematics. Retrieved February 22, 2013, from http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/Quantum/casimir.html Inside Science News Service (2010, September 24). Time Moves Faster Upstairs, Confirming Einstein’s Relativity. Fox News. Retrieved February 24, 2013, from http://www.foxnews.com/scitech/2010/09/24/time-moves-faster-upstairs/ Lovgren, S. (2005, September 15). Are Wormholes Tunnels for Time Travel? National Geographic News. Retrieved February 22, 2013, from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/09/0916_050916_timetravel.html

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